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ISSN : 1226-9999(Print)
ISSN : 2287-7851(Online)
Korean J. Environ. Biol. Vol.33 No.4 pp.375-382
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11626/KJEB.2015.33.4.375

New Record of Three Colpodean Ciliates (Ciliophora: Colpodea) from Korea

Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min*
Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
Corresponding author: Gi-Sik Min, Tel. 032-860-7692, Fax. 032-874-6737, mingisik@inha.ac.kr
September 1, 2015 October 9, 2015 October 12, 2015

Abstract

We discovered three soil ciliates of the class Colpodea-Colpoda henneguyi Fabre- Domergue, 1889; C. lucida Greeff, 1888; and Bursaria truncatella Müller, 1773 from Obong-ri, Ayajin-ri and Elwang-ri (Korea), respectively. Colpoda henneguyi had the following features: often wider preorally than postorally, size in vivo 60-80 μm×50-70 μm; extrusomes indistinct in vivo, cylindroid approximately 1 μm long; notches caused by deep diagonal groove; yellowish globules on the cortex of the cell; 10-12 postoral kineties; silverline system aspera-type. Colpoda lucida exhibited the following features: broadly reniform, size in vivo 70-90 μm×50-70 μm; conspicuous extrusomes, 3.5-5 μm long in vivo, cylindroid to fusiform; 13-16 postoral kineties; silverline system cucullus-type. Bursaria truncatella had the following features: bursiform, size in vivo 300-470 μm×120-260 μm; macronucleus coiled with highly variable shapes, 600-1100 μm×30-40 μm long in vivo; micronuclei 16-25 in number, approximately 4 μm in diameter; extrusomes cylindroid, 3-4 μm long in vivo. This is the first report of colpodean ciliates from Korea, and we describe these species based on observations of live and impregnated (protargol and silver nitrate impregnation) specimens.


초록


    Ministry of Environment
    NIBR201501201

    INTRODUCTION

    The class Colpodea Small & Lynn 1981 are characterized with somatic dikinetids (rarely trikinetids), reticulate silverline systems (colpodid, platyophryid and kreyellid type), somatic stomatogenesis, the left kinetodesmal fiber consists of transverse microtubular ribbons extending posteriorly at the left side of the ciliary rows, oral structures consist of a right and a left ciliary field, monokinetids, dikinetids, or polykinetids (Foissner 1993). Colpodean species have been recorded approximately 200 species have been recorded in the class to date (Foissner 1993, 2003, 2010, 2014; Foissner et al. 2002; Dunthorn et al. 2009; Foissner and Stoeck 2009; Bourland et al. 2011). However, colpodeans have not yet been reported in Korea.

    The genus Colpoda was established by Müller (1773), and Foissner (1993) revised the number of species to a total of 30. Colpoda is characterized by the following features: a small to rather large vestibulum; funnel-shape; left wall of vestibulum overhangs right; and right polykinetid composed of disordered kineties (Foissner 1993).

    The genus Bursaria was established by Müller (1773), and it only contains three valid species: B. caudata, B. ovata and B. truncatella (Foissner 1993). Bursaria species are characterized by the following features: moderately large to fairly large size; very large adoral zone of organelles; and paroral formations (right oral polykinetids) on the edge and inner side of the dorsal and right vestibular wall (Foissner 1993).

    In the present study, we described three colpodean ciliates isolated from soil samples in Korea, based on observations of live and impregnated specimens.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Colpoda henneguyi, C. lucida and Bursaria truncatella specimens were collected from terrestrial habitat in Korea in November 2014. After the dried soil was transferred onto Petri dishes, supply clean water and stand at room temperature the minimum 6 hours.

    Live and protargol-impregnated specimens were observed using a stereo microscope (SZH10; Olympus, Japan) and a light microscope (DM2500; Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) at ×50 to ×1000 magnifications. Protargol impregnation was performed according to Foissner (1991), and classification and terminology follows that of Foissner (1993).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Class Colpodea Small and Lynn, 1981 콜포다섬모충강

    Order Colpodida Puytorac et al., 1974 콜포다섬모충목

    Family Colpodidae Bory De St. Vincent, 1826 콜포다섬모충과

    Genus ColpodaMüller, 1773 콜포다섬모충속

    1.Colpoda henneguyi Fabre-Domergue, 1889 (Fig. 1, Table 1) 홈콜포다섬모충 (신칭)

    Material examined: Flooded soil, Ayajin-ri, Goseong-gun, Gangwon, South Korea (38°16′N 128°33′E), in November 2014.

    Diagnosis: Size in vivo 58-74 μm×50-65 μm and an average of 68 μm×58 μm in protargol-impregnation, swimming in spiral path and scarcely motion in the bottom (Fig. 1a, b, k). Body oval-shape, cell color slightly yellowish gray, rigid (Fig. 1q). Yellowish granules, size in vivo 1-1.5 μm in diameter, on the cortex of the cell (Fig. 1j). Indistinct extrusive granules, size in vivo 2×1 μm (Table 1, Fig. 1i). Postoral notch on the right margin, because of a deep diagonal groove (Fig. 1d). One macronucleus 13 μm×12 μm on average and one micronucleus 3.0 μm×2.0 μm on average (Fig. 1a, g). Contractile vacuole at posteriorly (Fig. 1a, e).

    Typical Colpoda ciliature pattern; approximately 34-43 somatic kineties, 26-29 left polykinetids (Table 1, Fig. 1b, k, i). Silverline system aspera-type (Fig. 1o, q, r).

    Remarks: The Korean population has more somatic kineties than the Danish population (30-36 vs. 34-43) (Table. 1). Colpoda henneguyi has a postoral notch which is a distinguishing character of other Colpoda species. The Korean population is similar to the population of Foissner 1993. Colpoda henneguyi differs from C. variabilis based on the following features: extrusive granules (distinct vs. indistinct); number of somatic kineties (44-63 vs. 34-43); body length (70-156 μm vs. 60-78 μm) (Hofmann-Münz et al. 1990).

    Habitat: Submerge soil in water meadow.

    World distribution: France, Germany, USA, Japan, Tibet, Czechoslovakia, Korea.

    Deposition: Two voucher slides with protargol-impregnated specimens are deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (NIBR000106560-NIBR000106561).

    Collector: Euna Jo.

    Identifiers: Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min.

    2Colpoda lucidaGreeff, 1888 (Fig. 2, Table 1) 반들콜포다섬모충 (신칭)

    Material examined: Obong-ri, Goseong-gun, Gangwon, South Korea (38°20′N 128°30′E), in November 2014.

    Diagnosis: Size in vivo 70-90 μm×55-70 μm and an average of 76.4 μm×56.4 μm in protargol preparations (Table 1, Fig. 2a, b, f). Broadly reniform, rigid and transparent at low magnification (Fig. 2d-f). Swim in spiral path and slow motion in the bottom. The postoral sack extends to the dorsal side, fusiform of fairly distinct extrusive granules, length in vivo 3-5 μm, surrounding the cell layer (Fig. 2a, f, g). One macronucleus 19 μm×15 μm on average and one micronucleus 3.0 μm×2.0 μm on average (Table 1, Fig. 2a, h, m). Contractile vacuole at posterior end (Fig. 2a, f). Approximately 42-47 somatic kineties and 26-33 left polykinetids (Table 1, Fig. 2b, i, j). Silverline system cucullus-type (Fig. 2l).

    Remarks: Cell size was smaller than compared with the African population (Table 1). Previously Colpoda lucida and C. cucullus was considered same species (Foissner 1993). These two species, however, clearly separates based on the existence of distinct peripheral extrusomes (Colpoda lucida, distinctly present). Additionally Colpoda lucida differs from C. cucullus based on the following features: number

    of somatic kineties (26-34 vs. 42-47); number of postoral kineties (8-12 vs. 13-16) (Table 1) (Foissner 1993).

    Habitat: Dried soil under a tree.

    World distribution: Germany, Japan, Austria, Kenya, USA, Australia, Korea.

    Deposition: Two voucher slides with protargol-impregnated specimens are deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (NIBR000106562-NIBR000106563).

    Collector: Euna Jo.

    Identifiers: Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min.

    Order Bursariomorphida Fernández-Galiano, 1978 큰입섬모충목 (신칭)

    Family Bursariidae Bory De St. Vincent, 1826 큰입섬모충과 (신칭)

    Genus BursariaMüller, 1773 큰입섬모충속 (신칭)

    1.Bursaria truncatellaMüller, 1773 (Fig. 3, Table 2) 큰입섬모충 (신칭)

    Material examined: Elwang-ri, Incheon, South Korea (37° 26ʹN 126°23ʹE), in November 2014.

    Diagnosis: Size in vivo 300-470 μm×120-260 μm and an average of 315 μm×150 μm in protargol preparations (Table 2, Fig. 3a, b, e). Bursiform to reniform, right margin convex, transparent at low magnification and rigid (Fig. 3a-e). Fusiform of distinct extrusive granules, length in vivo 2-3 μm, surrounding the cell (Fig. 3i). Macronucleus is very long, 600-1100 μm×30-40 μm and irregularly coiled with variable shapes (Fig. 3a, b, f, k). Approximately 16-25 micronuclei, size in protargol preparations 3-4 μm in diameter (Table 1, Fig. 3b, l). Approximately 80-110 contractile vacuoles irregularly distributed in the cell, size in vivo 7-12 μm in diameter (Fig. 3c, g). Silverline system colpodid pattern (Fig. 3n).

    Remarks: The individuals in the Korean population are generally smaller than those in the population of Foissner 1980 (Table 2). Bursaria has three valid species (B. caudata, B. ovata and B. truncatella). The body size of Bursaria ovata and B. caudata are larger than that of B. truncatella (B. truncatella: 250-530 μm; B. ovata: 500-1000 μm; B. caudata: 1000-1500 μm) (Foissner, 1993). Moreover, the other two Bursaria species have narrow posteriorly, but B. truncatella has rounded posteriorly.

    Habitat: Dried soil with a twig under a tree.

    World distribution: Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Austria, Russia, Japan, Netherlands, Korea.

    Deposition: Two voucher slides with protargol-impregnated specimens are deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (NIBR000106564-NIBR000106565).

    Collector: Kang-San Kim.

    Identifiers: Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min.

    Figure

    KJEB-33-375_F1.gif

    Colpoda henneguyi from live (a, d, e-j), protargol-impregnated (b, c, k-n) and silver nitrate-impregnated (o-r) specimens. (a), (b), (d), (f), (g), (h), (j), (k), (m), (n), (o)-(r) - right lateral views; (c), (e), (i), (l), (p) - left lateral views. (d) - arrow indicates a postoral notch on the right margin; (e) - position of contractile vacuole (arrow); (g) - macronucleus (arrow) and micronucleus (arrowhead); (h) - right and left oral polykinetid; (i) - extrusome at the cell margin (arrow); (l) - arrow marks excretory pore; (m) - right oral polykinetid; (n) - left oral polykinetid; (o), (r) - silverline system; (p) - left lateral view of (o); CV - contractile vacuole; Dg - diagonal groove; Ep - excretory pore; K - keel; lP - left oral polykinetid; Ma - macronucleus; Mi - micronucleus; rP - right oral polykinetid. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    KJEB-33-375_F2.gif

    Colpoda lucida from live (a, d, e-i), protargol-impregnated (j, k, m, n) and silver nitrate-impregnated (l) specimens. (a), (b), (d), (e), (h)-(j), (l)-(n) - right lateral views; (c), (f), (g), (k) - left lateral views. (f) - arrow indicates contractile vacuole; (g) - extrusomes at the cell margin (arrow); (h) - macronucleus (arrow) and micronucleus (arrowhead); (i) - right and left oral polykinetid; (j) - arrows mark a postoral kinetids; (k) - diagonal groove (arrow); (m) - macronucleus and micronucleus; (l) - silverline system, arrows indicate circular silverlines surrounding somatic dikinetid, arrowheads indicate extrusomes; (n) - right (arrow) and left (arrowhead) oral polykinetid. CV - contractile vacuole; Dg - diagonal groove; Ep - excretory pore; K - keel; lP - left oral polykinetid; Ma - macronucleus; Mi - micronucleus; rP - right oral polykinetid. Scale bars: 50 μm.

    KJEB-33-375_F3.gif

    Bursaria truncatella from live (a, d, e-j), protargol-impregnated (k-m) and silver nitrate-impregnated (n, o) specimens. (a)-(h), (j)-(o) - ventral views; (i), (j) - ventral views. (f) - macronucleus (arrow); (g), (h) - distributions of adoral organelles, contractile vacuoles, fibers and “Mundspalte”, arrow indicates paroral rows; (i) - arrow marks extrusomes at the cell margin; (j) - distribution of granules; (k) - macronucleus (arrow); (l) - micronucleus (arrows); (m) - showing aO; (n) - silverline system; (o) - cytoplasm on the ventral side. aO - adoral organelles; CV - contractile vacuole; F - fibers; M - “Mundspalte”; Ma - macronucleus; Mi - micronucleus; PR - paroral rows. Scale bars: 200 μm.

    Table

    Morphometric characterization of Colpoda species. C. henneguyi (C. hen1: this study, Korean population; C. hen2: Foissner 1993, Danish population; C. hen3: Foissner 1993, Australian population). C. lucida (C. luc1: this study, Korean population; C. luc2: Foissner 1993, African population)

    aData based on protargol-impregnated specimens.
    bData based on Chatton-Lwoff silver nitrate-impregnated specimens.
    CV=coefficient of variation (%); Max=maximum; Mean=average; Min=minimum; n=number of individual investigated; SD=standard deviation. All measurement in μm.

    Morphometric characterization of Bursaria truncatella. B. truncatella (B. tru1: this study; B. tur2: Foissner 1980)

    aData based on protargol-impregnated specimens.
    bData based on Chatton-Lwoff silver nitrate-impregnated specimens.
    CV=coefficient of variation (%); Max=maximum; Mean=average; Min=minimum; n=number of individual investigated; SD=standard deviation. All measurement in μm.

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