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ISSN : 1226-9999(Print)
ISSN : 2287-7851(Online)
Korean J. Environ. Biol. Vol.33 No.4 pp.383-389
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11626/KJEB.2015.33.4.383

New Record of Two Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia) from Korea

Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min*
Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
Corresponding author: Gi-Sik Min, Tel. 032-860-7692, Fax. 032-874-6737, mingisik@inha.ac.kr
September 1, 2015 October 9, 2015 October 12, 2015

Abstract

We identified two soil stichotrichs, Eschaneustyla lugeri Foissner, Agatha & Berger, 2002 and Oxytricha auripunctata Blatterer & Foissner, 1988, which were collected from Sarabong, Jeju and Ajoong-ri, Jeonju in Korea, respectively. Eschaneustyla lugeri had the following characteristics: size in vivo 170-230 μm×40-60 μm; body elongate elliptical and often very narrow in the posterior region, highly flexible; cortical granules present; 48-67 macronuclear nodules; 27-47 frontal cirri; 3-5 buccal cirri; frontoterminal row and rightmost midventral row; transverse cirri absent; 4 dorsal kineties; 4-9 caudal cirri. Oxytricha auripunctata had the following characteristics: size in vivo 75-95 μm×25-35 μm; body elliptical, both ends moderately narrowly rounded; orange-yellow cortical granules and yellowish crystals; 3-4 transverse cirri; 5 dorsal kineties; 3 caudal cirri. These two ciliates are first reported in Korea. We describe these ciliates based on live observations and protargol-impregnated specimens.


초록


    Ministry of Environment
    NIBR No. 2014-02-001
    NIBR201501201

    INTRODUCTION

    The genus Eschaneustyla, which was established by Stokes (1886), has not been reported in Korea. The three species, Eschaneustyla brachytona, E. lugeri and E. terricola are assigned to the genus Eschaneustyla (Berger 2006). The Eschaneustyla is distinguished with the characteristics of many frontal cirri in multicorona, more than two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of short row, transverse cirri absent from congeners (Berger 2006).

    The genus Oxytricha was established by Bory de Saint Vincent in Lamouroux et al. (1824). To date, approximately 60 species have been recorded in the genus Oxytricha, about 20 of which were found in soil (Foissner & Adam 1983; Foissner 1996; Berger 1999; Paiva & Silva-Neto 2004; Deshmukh et al. 2012; Weisse et al. 2013; Shao et al. 2014).

    Nine species of Oxytricha have been previously reported in South Korea - Hemiurosomoida longa (Gelei & Szabados, 1950), O. balladyna Song & Wilbert, 1989, O. fallax Stein, 1859, O. granuliferaFoissner & Adam, 1983, O. longigranulosa Berger & Foissner, 1989, O. marina Kahl, 1932, O. proximata Shibuya, 1930, O. rubripuncta Berger and Foissner, 1987 and O. saltans (Cohn 1866) Rees, 1881 (Shin and Kim 1993; The Korean Society of Systematic Zoology 1997; Kwon and Shin 2004, 2008, 2013; He and Choi 2015). Oxytricha species have the following common characteristics: frontoventral cirri in V-shaped pattern; two pretransverse ventral cirri and four to five transverse cirri; one right and left marginal row, four to six dorsal kineties; and caudal cirri present (Berger 1999).

    In the current study, we identified two soil stichotrichs - Eschaneustyla lugeriFoissner, Agatha & Berger, 2002 and Oxytricha auripunctataBlatterer & Foissner, 1988. Our description is based on live observations and protargolimpregnated specimens. This is the first record of these two species in Korea.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Sample collection, observation, and identification

    Specimens of Eschaneustyla lugeri and Oxytricha auripunctata were collected from soil of land areas in Jeonju and Jeju, respectively. After the dried soil was transferred onto Petri dishes, supply clean water and stand at room temperature the minimum 6 hours.

    We observed live and protargol-impregnated specimens using a light microscope (DM2500; Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) at magnifications of ×50 to ×1000. Protargol impregnation was performed according to the method of Foissner (1991). Classification and terminology follow those of Berger (1999, 2006).

    RESULTS and REMARKS

    Family Epiclintidae Wicklow & Borror, 1990 다전극하모과 (신칭)

    Genus EschaneustylaStokes, 1886 에스카하모속 (신칭)

    Eschaneustyla lugeriFoissner, Agatha & Berger, 2002 에스카하모충 (신칭) (Figs. 1, 2, Table 1)

    Material examined: Ajoong-ri, Jeonju (38°48ʹN 127°10ʹE) in December 2014.

    Diagnosis: Body elongate elliptical and often a very narrow posterior end, very flexible; size in vivo 170-230 μm×40- 60 μm (Figs. 1a, b, 2a, b); contractile vacuole at slightly upper middle of the left margin, two collecting canals (Figs. 1a, 2c); two types of colorless cortical granules present, circle to ellipse shape of large granules (type I, 1-1.5 μm in diameter) around cirri and dorsal bristles, small granules (type II, less than 0.5 μm) and crystals irregularly scattered (Figs. 1d, e, 2d-f); adoral zone of membranelles 27-35% of body length and 46-61 membranelles in protargol-impregnated specimens (Table 1, Figs. 1a, b, 2g, j); 48-67 macronuclear nodules, 3-8 micronuclei (Table 1, Figs. 1c, 2i); 27-47 frontal cirri, 3-5 buccal cirri, 35-59 frontoterminal cirri and 24-38 rightmost midventral cirri, transverse cirri absent, 1 right and 1 left marginal rows (Table 1, Figs. 1a, b, 2g); 4 dorsal kineties, 4-9 caudal cirri (Table 1, Figs. 1c, 2h, k, i).

    Remarks: Before found in Korea, this rare species was only recorded from Taveuni Island, Fiji Island (Foissner 2002). In the Korean population, body size is smaller compared with that of the population of Fiji Island (Table 1). The major characteristics (body size, shape and pattern of ciliature) share with the Fiji population (Table 1). Eschaneustyla lugeri shows many frontal cirri forming multicorona which is the distinguishing feature of the family Epiclintidae. Eschaneustyla lugeri has only one midventral row, however, the other species of the genera, Eschaneustyla and Epiclintes have more than one midventral row (Berger 2006).

    Habitat: Humus soil in the forest.

    World distribution: Fiji Island and Korea.

    Deposition: Two voucher slides with protargol-impregnated specimens are deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (NIBR000106558-NIBR000106559).

    Collector: Dong-Ha Ahn.

    Identifiers: Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min.

    Family Oxytrichidae Ehrenberg, 1830 첨모하모충과

    Genus Oxytricha Bory de St. Vincent in Lamouroux, Bory de St. Vincent & Ddslongchamps, 1824 첨모하모충속

    Oxytricha auripunctataBlatterer & Foissner, 1988 노란점첨모하모충 (신칭) (Figs. 3, 4, Table 2)

    Material examined: Sarabong, Jeju (33°31ʹN 126°32ʹE) collected by Dong-Ha Ahn in October 2014.

    Diagnosis: Body elliptical and both ends narrowly rounded, slightly flexible; size in vivo 75-95 μm×25-35 μm (Table 2, Figs. 3a, 4a); contractile vacuoles at left mid-body, two collecting canals (Figs. 3a, 4b, c); 0.5-1 μm in diameter orange yellowish cortical granules around cirri and dorsal bristles and irregularly scattered, 2-4 μm long yellowish crystals irregularly distributed (Figs. 3d, e, 4d-g); 11-16 μm×5-9 μm sized, 2 macronuclear nodules, 2 or 3 micronuclei in protargol- impregnated specimens (Figs. 3a, c, 4j); adoral zone of membranelles 28-34% of body length in protargol-impregnated specimens, 24-28 membranelles (Table 2, Figs. 3b, 4h); all cirri 10-12 μm long in vivo (transverse cirri, 15-17 μm long in vivo); 3 frontal cirri, 1 buccal cirrus, 4 frontoventral cirri, 3 postoral ventral cirri, 2 pretransverse ventral cirri, 3-4 transverse cirri, 1 right and 1 left marginal row (Table 2, Figs. 3a, b, 4h); 2 μm long in vivo dorsal cilia, 5 dorsal kineties with several basal bodies, 3 caudal cirri (Table 2, Figs. 3c, 4i).

    Remarks: In the Korean population, body size is smaller than compared with the Australian population (Table 2). Oxytricha auripunctata has orange-yellowish cortical granules which differ from those of other Oxytricha species. Oxytricha auripunctata differs from O. rubripuncta in the following characteristics: body size in vivo (120-160 μm× 40-60 μm vs. 75-95 μm×25-35 μm); color of cortical granules (reddish vs. orange-yellowish) (Berger 1999).

    Habitat: Humus soil under mosses.

    World distribution: Australia, Costa Rica and Korea.

    Deposition: Two voucher slides with protargol-impregnated specimens are deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (NIBR000106566-NIBR000106567).

    Collector: Dong-Ha Ahn.

    Identifiers: Kang-San Kim, Gi-Sik Min.

    Figure

    KJEB-33-383_F1.gif

    Eschaneustyla lugeri from life (a, d, e) and after protargol impregnation (b, c). (a), (b) - ventral view of the specimen, (c) - dorsal view of the specimen, (d) - showing cirri with cortical granules on the ventral side, (e) - showing dorsal bristles with cortical granules on the dorsal side. AZM - adoral zone of membranelles; BC - buccal cirri; CV - contractile vacuole; DK - dorsal kineties; EM - endoral membrane; FC - frontal cirri; FT - frontoterminal row; LMR - left marginal row; Ma - macronuclear nodules; Mi - micronuclei; PM - paroral membrane; RMR - right marginal row; RMV - rightmost midventral row; CC - caudal cirri. Scale bar: 100 μm.

    KJEB-33-383_F2.gif

    Eschaneustyla lugeri from life (a-f) and after protargol impregnation (g-l). (a), (b) - ventral view of the specimen, (c) - dorsal view of the specimen, (d) - arrows mark cortical granules around dorsal bristles, (e) - arrowheads indicate dorsal bristles, arrows indicate cortical granules, (f) - type I cortical granules (arrows), type II cortical granules (arrowheads), cirri on the ventral side (double arrowheads), (g), (j), (k) - ventral views of the specimen, arrow indicates curved left marginal cirri, (h) - dorsal view of the specimen, (i) - distribution of macronuclear nodules, (l) - arrows indicate dorsal kineties. AZM - adoral zone of membranelles; BC - buccal cirri; DK - dorsal kineties; E - endoral membrane; FC - frontal cirri; FT - frontoterminal row; LMR - left marginal row; Ma - macronuclear nodules; Mi - micronuclei; P - paroral membrane; RMR - right marginal row; RMV - rightmost midventral row; CC - caudal cirri. Scale bars: 100 μm.

    KJEB-33-383_F3.gif

    Oxytricha auripunctata from life (a, d, e) and after protargol impregnation (b, c). (a), (b) - ventral views of the specimen, (c) - dorsal view of the specimen, (d) - showing cirri with cortical granules on the ventral side, (e) - showing dorsal bristles with cortical granules on the dorsal side. AZM - adoral zone of membranelles; BC - buccal cirrus; CV - contractile vacuole; DK - dorsal kineties; EM - endoral membrane; FC - frontal cirri; FVC - frontoventral cirri; LMR - left marginal row; Ma - macronuclear nodules; Mi - micronuclei; PM - paroral membrane; PTVC - pretransverse ventral cirri; PVC - postoral ventral cirri; RMR - right marginal row; TC - transverse cirri; CC - caudal cirri. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    KJEB-33-383_F4.gif

    Oxytricha auripunctata from life (a-g) and after protargol impregnation (h-j). (a), (h) - ventral views of the specimen, (b) - dorsal view of the specimen, caudal cirri (arrows), (c) - arrows mark two collecting canals, (d) - distribution of cortical granules on the dorsal side, (e) - dorsal bristle (arrow), cortical granules (arrowhead), (f) - cirri (arrow), cortical granules (arrowhead), (g) - showing crystals (arrows), (i) - dorsal view of the specimen, arrows indicate basal bodies, (j) - macronuclear nodules and micronuclei. AZM - adoral zone of membranelles; BC - buccal cirrus; CV - contractile vacuole; DK - dorsal kineties; EM - endoral membrane; FC - frontal cirri; FVC - frontoventral cirri; LMR - left marginal row; Ma - macronuclear nodules; Mi - micronuclei; PM - paroral membrane; PTVC - pretransverse ventral cirri; PVC - postoral ventral cirri; RMR - right marginal row; TC - transverse cirri; CC - caudal cirri. Scale bar: 50 μm.

    Table

    Morphometric data of Eschaneustyla lugeri (Es1: from this study; Es2: from Foissner et al. 2002)

    aData based on protargol-impregnated specimens. CV=coefficient of variation (%); Max=maximum; Mean=average; Min=minimum; n=number of individual investigated; SE=standard error; SD=standard deviation. All measurements in μm.

    Morphometric data of Oxytricha auripunctata (OA1: from this study; OA2: from Blatterer & Foissner 1988)

    aData based on protargol-impregnated specimens. CV=coefficient of variation (%); Max=maximum; Mean=average; Min=minimum; n=number of individual investigated; SE=standard error; SD=standard deviation. All measurements in μm.

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