Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1226-9999(Print)
ISSN : 2287-7851(Online)
Korean Journal of Environmental Biology Vol.35 No.3 pp.305-318
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11626/KJEB.2017.35.3.305

New Recorded of Several Taxa in Freshwater Algae from South Korea

Yong Jae Kim
*
Department of Life Science, Daejin University, Pocheon 11159, Republic of Korea
Corresponding author : Yong Jae Kim, 031-539-1851, 031-539-1850, yjkim@daejin.ac.kr
August 22, 2017 September 4, 2017 September 4, 2017

Abstract

Freshwater algae (green algae, blue-green algae and flagellated algae) were collected at 103 freshwater sites (including lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, and rivers) throughout South Korea March 2015-October 2016, and were identified using light microscopy. A total of 345 taxa in 2015 and 329 taxa in 2016 were identified and among them, 6 taxa in 2015 and 8 taxa in 2016 were new recorded species in Korea; The new recorded species were Characiopsis malleolus in Xanthophyceae, Phacus mammillatus in Euglenophyceae, Epipyxis utriculus and Lagynion ampullaceum in Chrysophyceae, Bicosoeca planctonica in Bicosoecophyceae and Salpingoeca frequentissima in Choanoflagellatea in 2015, and were Ankistrodesmus bernardii and Quadrigula korsikovii in Chlorophyceae, Didymocystis planctonica in Treubouxiophyceae, Spirulina nodosa, Raphidiopsis curvata and Geitlerinema claricentrosum in Cyanophyceae and Lagynion macrotrachelum in Chrysophyceae, Bicosoeca oculata in Bicosoecophyceae and Salpingeoca rosetta in Choanoflagellatea in 2016.


초록


    Ministry of Environment
    NIBR201701201

    Introduction

    Algae are divided into freshwater, seawater and soil algae, depending on habitat. There are currently 148,936 species reported (Guiry and Guiry 2017). Many of these algae taxonomies have changed considerably until recently. Especially in earlier studies, alpha classification by simple optical microscope was conducted, but various research methods such as beta classification according to development of the electron microscope and recent molecular classification of gamma classification and phylogeny classification were introduced. Therefore, we have discovered several features that have not been found previously and set up a classification system based on them. Although it is described in Algaebase, it is continuously changing.

    Studies on freshwater algae have been actively conducted globally, including Europe (Lemmermann 1908; Chodat 1913; Hindak 1977, 1988; Hegewald and Schnepf 1979; Komárek and Fott 1983; John et al. 2002), North America (Prescott 1962; Wehr and Sheath (eds.) 2003) and Asia (Philipose 1967, 1984; Hirose and Yamagishi (eds.) 1977; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1994, 1995, 1997; Hu and Wei 2006). Numerous other studies also have been conducted. Freshwater algae research has been conducted domestically by many researchers since Kawamura (1918), that will continue during studies currently in progress (Chang 1986, 1987; Wui and Kim 1987; Chang and An 1989; An and Chang 1990; Chung and Kim 1994; Kim et al. 1994, 2012; Kim 2013a, 2014a-d; Shin et al. 2013; Song and Lee 2014).

    In recent years, studies on freshwater algae in Korea have focused on securing biodiversity through exploration of native species, although there are many ecological areas. This is also vital for ensuring sovereignty of biological resources in Korea. In particular, through discovery of these species, we will establish a foundation to secure future resources and become a center of R & D in Northeast Asia.

    In this study, freshwater algae (green algae, blue-green algae and flagellated algae) were collected at 103 freshwater sites (including lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, and rivers) throughout South Korea March 2015-October 2016. A total 345 taxa in 2015 and 329 taxa in 2016 were identified and among them, 6 taxa in 2015 and 8 taxa in 2016 were new recorded species in Korea.

    Mate rials and Met hods

    Freshwater algae were obtained from samples collected using 10 μm or 20 μm mesh-sized plankton nets towed vertically and/or horizontally through water, and benthic or soil algae were collected from samples collected using a pincette or brush. Samples are immediately fixed using Lugol’s iodine solution (0.5%), that immobilized cells for microscopic examination. To examine fine structure and cellular shapes, and to identify and classify freshwater algal species, temporary microscope slides of algae were made by mixing freshwater algal samples with glycerin in micro tubes, transferring drops of mixture to glass slides, and covering with cover slips. Permanent slides were made by mixing freshwater algal samples with liquid glycerol gelatin, transferring drops of mixture to histochemical slides (Sigma), covering with cover slips, and sealing margins of the cover slips with nail polish (Thecashop). Temporary and permanent slides were observed at ×200-1000 magnification using light microscopy (Axioskop 20 and Axio Imager A2; Zeiss, Germany); an attached digital camera (Zeiss Axiocam HRc, Germany) was used to capture images. Scale bars in illustrations represent 10 μm.

    At each site water temperature (WT: ℃), electrical conductivity (EC: μS cm-1), and pH were measured (Table 1) during the sampling period using a U-50 multiparameter water quality meter (Horiba, Japan).Fig. 1

    Results and Discussion

    Freshwater algae (green algae, blue-green algae and flagellated algae) were collected at 103 freshwater sites (including lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, and rivers) throughout South Korea March 2015-October 2016, and were identified using light microscopy. A total 345 taxa in 2015 and 329 taxa in 2016 were identified and among them, 6 taxa in 2015 and 8 taxa in 2016 were new recorded species in Korea; The new recorded species were Characiopsis malleolus in Xanthophyceae, Phacus mammillatus in Euglenophyceae, Epipyxis utriculus and Lagynion ampullaceum in Chrysophyceae, Bicosoeca planctonica in Bicosoecophyceae and Salpingoeca frequentissima in Choanoflagellatea in 2015, and were Ankistrodesmus bernardii and Quadrigula korsikovii in Chlorophyceae, Didymocystis planctonica in Treubouxiophyceae, Spirulina nodosa, Raphidiopsis curvata and Geitlerinema claricentrosum in Cyanophyceae and Lagynion macrotrachelum, Stokesiella lepteca in Chrysophyceae and Salpingeoca rosetta in Choanoflagellatea in 2016.

    Class Chlorophyceae

    Order Sphaeropleales

    Family Selenastraceae

    Genus Ankistrodesmus Corda 1838

    Ankistrodesmus bernardii Komárek (Fig. 2a, b)

    References:Komárek 1983. p. 138, 176, pl. 26, fig. 65; Komárek and Fott 1983. p. 687, pl. 193, fig. 3.

    Synonym:Raphidium polymorphum var. fasciculatum Kützing sensu Bernard.

    Occurrence site: Chukdong reservoir (WT 30.2℃, pH 8.9, EC 233 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species occurs as colonies of 4, 8, 16 or 32 cells. Cells are narrow and long fusiform shape, and gradually sharpening into both ends, with slightly S-shaped curved. Cells were joined and helicoidally twisted together with other cells at the middle of the colony. The cell has a long, parietal and laminated chloroplast without a pyrenoid. Cells are 30-70 μm in length and 1-3 μm in the width.

    Distribution and Ecology: Brazil, Indonesia, Cuba, Malaysia and Singapore (Komárek and Fott 1983), Taiwan (Yamagishi and Akiyama 1998), China (Hu and Wei 2006).

    Specimen: KTSN 120000072459 (Nakdonggang NIBR, 2016); DAEJINCD-201500709-1.

    Remark: Members included this species inhabited exclusively freshwater. Thallus composed of single cell or coenobium and is uninucleate and non-motile. The group consisted of morphological and ecological characteristics is traditionally classified by the order Chlorococcales (Marchand 1895). Fritsch (1935) divided Chlorococcales into eight families. Among them, the family Chlorellaceae composed of non-motile and single cell or colonial thallus. This spe- cies consisting of this morphological type is traditionally classified into family Chlorellaceae by Komárek and Fott (1983), Hu and Wei (2006). However, Chlorococcales and Sphaeropleales were apart by the ultrastructures of CW orientation of basal apparatus (Krienitz and Bock 2012). The taxa belong to the family Selenastraceae are not zoospore with DO-orientation of flagella apparatus, non-motile and solitary or colonial type. Therefore, the needle-shaped and colonial typed this species is transferred into family Selenastraceae by Krienitz and Bock (2012), and Guiry and Guiry (2017). This species is like A. densus that is characterized by denser shrub-like colonies, slightly curved and sigmoid cells. Therefore, it is confusing to identify taxa. Hindak (1988) referred that this species is differed by shorter and thinner cells than A. densus.

    Genus QuadrigulaPrintz 1916

    Quadrigula korsikovii Komárek (Fig. 2c, d)

    References:Komárek 1979. 258, fig. 5c; Komárek and Fott 1983, p. 679, pl. 191, fig. 1.

    Synonym:Ankistrodesmus closterioides (Printz) Korshikov sensu Korshikov; Quadrigula pfitzeri (Schröder) Printz sensu Skuja

    Occurrence site: Chukdong reservoir (WT 30.2℃, pH 8.9, EC 233 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is colonies composed of 4-16 cells enclosed with gelatinous envelope. Colonies are oval or broad ellipsoid. Cells are arranged parallel, and elongated fusiform, straight or slightly curved, with sharply narrow, stubby at both end parts. Cells have an elongated parietal chloroplast, without a pyrenoid. Cells are 20-30 μm in length and 2-4 μm in width.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is benthos or plankton in marshes, swamps and mesotrophic lake in Sweden, Russia (Komárek and Fott 1983), plankton in oligotrophic to eutrophic waters in Slovakia (Hindak 1988) and Europe (John and Tsarenko 2002).

    Specimen: KTSN 120000207888 (Nakdonggang NIBR, 2016); DAEJINCD-20150603-2.

    Remark:Ankistrodesmus closterioides (Printz) Korshikov sensu Korshikov and Quadrigula pfitzeri (Schröder) Printz sensu Skuja are two independent species based on overall cells, morphology and both end parts of cells (Komárek 1979; Hindak 1988). And he reported Q. korsikovii as a new species. These taxa are included into Q. korsikovii by Komárek and Fott (1983), Hindak (1988) and John and Tsarenko (2002) but Guiry and Guiry (2017) report that the synonym is not currently included in AlgaeBase.

    Class Trebouxiophyceae

    Order Chlorellales

    Family Oocystaceae

    Genus Didymocystis Korshikov 1953

    Didymocystis planctonica Korshikov (Fig. 2e)

    References:Korshikov 1953. 396, fig. 399; Komárek and Fott 1983, p. 808, pl. 223, fig. 9.

    Synonym: Scenedesmus planctonicus (Korshikov) Fott

    Occurrence site: Chukdong reservoir (WT 30.2℃, pH 8.9, EC 233 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is coenobium which composed of two cells, closely contacted each other by straight inner sides. Cells are nearly semicircular or broad ellipsoid, with rounded ends and swelled outer lateral sides when mature. Cell wall is smooth and has a parietal chloroplast with a pyrenoid. Cells are 6-12 μm in length and 3-7 μm in diameter.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is plankton in eutrophic waters. Germany, Czech, Poland, Romania, Ukraine, Hungary (Komárek and Fott 1983), British and Cosmopolitan (John and Tsarenko 2002).

    Specimen: KTSN 120000203824 (Nakdonggang NIBR, 2016); DAEJINCD-20150603-1.

    Remark: This species is reported as the new species and included in the family Coelastraceae, order Protococcales, class Prorococcineae by Korshikov (1953). Fott (1973) and Hegewald (1978) is included in Scenedesmus that is characterized by production of two celled coenobia and has a pyrenoid (Hegewald and Deason 1989). However, Komárek (1973), Komárek and Fott (1983) kept the genus and belong to the family Scenedesmaceae, order Chlorococcales and class Chlorophyceae. Hegewald (1988) investigated the cell wall of Didymocystis by electron microscopy and he did not find the sporopollenic cell wall from the Scenedesmaceae. Therefore, this genus excluded from Scenedesmaceae and included in Oocystaceae with cellulosic fibers (Hegewald 1988). Komárek and Fott (1983) merged S. plnactonicus into D. planctonica. Yamagish and Akiyama (1997) included S. planctonica and Pseudodidymocystis palnactonia into a synonym of D. planctonica. However, this study divided Didymocystis planctonica and Pseudodidymocystis planctonica according to Hegewald (1988). Didymocystis planctonica resembles Pseudodidymocystis planctonica and it is difficult to identify and classify two taxa based on sporopollenic cell wall by light microscopy. Therefore, this study excluded the character of cell wall type and this species is identified by the character with or without a pyrenoid in cells.

    Class Cyanophyceae

    Order Spirulinales

    Family Spirulinaceae

    Genus Spirulina Turpin ex Gomont 1892

    Spirulina nodosa Schiller (Fig. 3a, b)

    References:Komárek and Anagnostodis 2005. p. 140, fig. 163.

    Occurrence site: Geomgurimot (in National Institute of Ecology) (WT 28.3°C, pH 8.3. EC 213 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is regularly or irregularly helix or screw-like coiled trichomes solitary or entangled filaments. Cells are small cylindrical form and cellular cross walls are indistinctly visible by light microscopy. Cells are 1.2- 1.6 μm in length, 1.2-1.4 μm in width and 5-9 μm in helix width.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is plankton in mesotrophic swamp and reservoir. Los Aves Islands (Komárek and Anagnostodis 2005), Pacific Coast of Nicaragua (Cano et al. 2004).

    Specimen: KTSN 120000207889 (Nakdonggang NIBR, 2016); DAEJINGGM-20160711-4.

    Remark: This genus is included in the family Oscillatoriaceae, order Nostocales in the early the taxonomic system (Gomont 1892; Geitler 1925). After first classification system, this genus transferred into the family Oscillatoriaceae, order Hormogonales (Huber-Pestalozzi 1938; Prescott 1962). Desikacharry (1959) suggested the new classification system from Chadefaud (1951)’s system and it is transferred this genus into order Nostocales (Desikachary 1959; Hirose and Yamagishi (eds.) 1977). Rippka et al. (1979) resuggested five section (order), that became the primary basis for the nomenclatural classification in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (Komárek et al. 2014). Komárek et al. (2014) suggested the new taxonomic and classification system (8 orders) by the basis of the phylogenetic methods. They transferred this genus into the family Spirulinaceae and order Spirulinales. This study classifies this genus in the study according to Komárek et al. (2014)’s classification system.

    Order Nostocales

    Family Nostocaceae

    Genus Raphidiopsis F.E. Fritsch and M.F. Rich 1929

    Raphidiopsis curvata F.E. Fritsch and M.F. Rich (Fig. 3c, d)

    References:Komárek 2013. p. 660, fig. 811.

    Occurrence site: Gongchon stream (WT 27.0℃, pH 10.6, EC 2,580 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is planktonic and solitary, filamentous trichome that cells arranged uniseriate. Trichomes are regularly sigmoidally coiled but rarely almost straight and usually slightly tapering at the ends. Cells are pale bluegreen and cylindrical or barrel shape. Terminal cells are elongated and pointed. Akinetes are developed 1-2 aside subapically or rarely in the middle of a trichomes. Cells are 4-6 μm in length and 2-4 μm in width, and 40-50 μm in helix width.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is plankton of freshwater, stagnant waters. Africa, Israel and China (Komárek 2013).

    Specimen: KTSN 120000207890 (Nakdonggang NIBR, 2016); DAEJINGC-20160924-01.

    Remark: It is reported that this species has or not akinetes at the subapical or middle of a trichome (Komárek 2013). However, it does not find the akinetes at the trichomes in this study. This species occurred at the stagnant system of the estuary of Gongchon stream where it was in eutrophic state and high water temperatures in summer in 2016.

    Genus Geitlerinema (Anagnostidis and Komárek) Anagnostidis 1989

    Geitlerinema claricentrosum (N.L. Gardner) Anagnostidis (Fig. 3e, f)

    References:Anagnostidis 1989. p. 39, figs. 1-4; Komárek and Anagnostodis 2005, p. 134, fig. 145.

    Synonym:Oscillatoria claricentrosum Gardner

    Phormidium claricentrosum (Gardner) Anagnostidis et Komárek.

    Occurrence site: Gongchon stream (WT 27.0℃, pH 10.63, EC 2,580 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is plankton or benthos and solitary, filamentous trichomes that is arranged uniseriate of cells. Trichomes are straight and slightly constricted cell walls, gradually attenuated at the ends. Cells are cylindrical or barrel-shaped, with two granules of sides and terminal cells are elongated and pointed. Cells are 7-10 μm in length and 5-6 μm in width.

    Specimen: KTSN 120000207891 (Nakdonggang NIBR, 2016); DAEJINGC-20160924-1.

    Remark: The several taxa of the genus Geitlerinema were classified in the past into the genus Oscillatoria that was the absence of heterocysts and lack of sheath (Gomont 1892). Anagnostidis (1989) separated the genus Geitlerinema and genus Oscillatoria. Important characters of the genus Geitlerinema are differed from the genus Oscillatoria (similar simple filamentous) were thin, cylindrical trichomes (<6 μm), intense gliding motility with oscillation and rotation, and lack of gelatinous sheath (Strunecky et al. 2017). It is classified to this genus and species from these characters in this study.

    Class Euglenophyceae

    Order Euglenales

    Family Phacaceae

    Genus Phacus Dujardin 1841

    Phacus mammillatus Philipose (Fig. 4a, b)

    References:Philipose 1984. p. 526, fig. 24a-c; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1998. 20: 54.

    Occurrence site: Dombaemul (WT 28.7℃, pH 6.2, EC 417 μs cm-1).

    Description: Cells are twisted and asymmetric triangular, with broadly rounded corners in the face view. Cell bodies divided into two distinct, dissimilar halves by the longitudinal furrows extending on the dorsal and ventral face. A half-cell is slightly larger and the other half cell is slightly smaller, and slightly twisted each other. Anterior ends are asymmetrically narrowed, rounded and bilobed. Periplasts are longitudinally and striates are obliquely distribution. Paramylons are 2-3 and perforated at the center or like circular plate, and distributed on each corner of cells. Cells are 30-40 μm in length and 20-25 μm in width.

    Distribution: India (Philipose 1984; Gupta 2012), Japan (Yamagishi and Akiyama (eds.) 1998).

    Specimen: DAEJINDB-20140531-1; NIBR (2015).

    Remark: This genus is distributed in cosmopolitan and most commonly in non-flowing waters in ponds, swamps, peat bogs and rivers, common in moderately polluted waters (Wolowski 2002). But this species has limitative report from Philipose (1984), Yamagishi and Akiyama (1998), Gupta (2012) in Guiry and Guiry (2017).

    Class Xanthophyceae

    Order Mischococcales

    Family Characidaceae

    Genus CharaciopsisBorzì 1895

    Characiopsis malleolus Pascher et Klug (Fig. 4c, d)

    References: Pascher and Klug in Pascher 1938. 729, fig. 578; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1997: 19:9

    Occurrence site: Seogangdaegyo, Hangang River (WT 30°C, EC 376 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary, epiphytic on the other algae. Cells are globose or broad ovoid and slightly projected toward the base of cell, with a stipe. Stipes are thin with a small basal disk. Cells have 2-4 parietal chloroplasts, without pyrenoid. Cells are 4-9 μm in diameters, stipes are 4-6 μm in length.

    Distribution: Malaysia (Yamagishi and Akiyama (eds.) 1997), Germany (Pascher 1938), Romania (Caraus 2017 in Guiry and Guiry 2017), Spain (Alvarez Cobelas 1984 in Guiry and Guiry 2017).

    Specimen: DAEJINHG-20150709-1; NIBRCL0000000061 (NIBR 2015).

    Class Chrysophyceae

    Order Chromulinales

    Family Dinobryaceae

    Genus Epipyxis Ehrenberg 1838

    Epipyxis utriculus (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg (Fig. 4e, f)

    References:Ehrenberg 1838. p.123, pl. 8, fig. 7; Huber- Pestalozzi 1941. P. 231, fig. 309.

    Basionym: Cocconema utriculus Ehrenberg

    Synonym: Dinobryon utriculus (Ehrenberg) Klebs

    Occurrence site: Si-nang reservoir (WT 26.6°C, pH 8.8, EC 88 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary and epiphytic on the filamentous algae. Cells are covered by lorica that is hyaline, fushiform, or spindle-shaped with apically slightly narrowed and posteriorly attenuated base. Lateral margins of lorica are smooth. Lorica are 25-30 μm in length and 6-10 μm in diameter.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is widely distributed in Europe and North America where solitary or clustered on filamentous algae (Cladophora, Oedogonium, Tribonema, Diatoms), and widespread in ponds and swamps in British (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941; Kristiansen 2002), Alaska (Yamagishi and Akiyama 1985).

    Specimen: DAEJINSN-20150603-3; NIBR (2015).

    Remark: This species is first described as Cocconema ? Vtriculus by Ehrenberg (1832). But Ehrenberg (1838) merged Cocconema ? Vtriculus into Epiphyxis utriculus as a synonym. The genus Epipyxis includes characters of the family of vertebrate animals, with no eye (and are attached) (Ehrenberg 1838). This genus included characters with no moving organ, revealing only a fine-grained ovarian of yellowish or brownish color, and a funnel-formed expanding and opening the anterior body, and attenuation. This genus has remained the most obvious animal characters, but it is found sometimes a bright cyst in the posterior part of every animal, that is likely to regard as seminal vesicles. The soft body of this genus is attached in a not much harder, membranes by stalks, and form pedestal or stand: denominated the genus Epipyxis by Ehrenberg 1838. After several decades, Klebs (1892) merged C.?Vtriculus into Dinobryon utriculus as a synonym and Huber-Pestalozii (1941) classified to D. utriculus. Recently this species is regarded as a synonym of Epipyxis utriculus (Guiry and Guiry 2017).

    Genus Stokesiella Lemmermann 1908

    Stokesiella lepteca (Stokes) Lemmermann (Fig. 5a, b)

    References:Lemmermann 1908. p. 374; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1995. 15:83.

    Basionym:Bicosoeca lepteca Stokes

    Occurrence site: Seogangdaegyo, Han River (WT 30℃, EC 376 μs cm-1), Noha reservoir (27.9℃, pH 6.7, EC 146 μs cm-1), Chukdong reservoir (30.2℃, pH 8.9, EC 233 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary and epiphytic on other algae. Cells are covered by lorica, that is cup-shaped with round bottom and slightly narrowed at the anterior. It has a thin and short stipe at the base of lorica. Loricae are 10-15 μm in length and 5-6 μm in width.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is epiphytic algae on other algal body. North America (Lemmermann 1908), Taiwan (Yamagishi and Akiyama 1995), Brazil (Bicudo et al. 2003).

    Specimen: KTSN 120000207892 (Nakdonggang NIBR 2016); DAEJINCD-201500709-1.

    Remark: This species was first described Bicosoeca lepteca as a new species by Stokes (1885). Lemmermann (1908) has changed from the genus Bicosoeca to the genus Stokesiella and merged B. lepteca into S. lepteca as a synonym. However, some authors have classified them into Bicosoeca or Bicoeca (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941). Guiry and Guiry (2017) accepted taxonomically this species described by Lemmermann (1908). In this study, this species is identified and classified according to Yamagishi and Akiyama (1995) and Lemmermann (1908).

    Order Hibberdiales

    Family Stylococaceae

    Genus LagynionPascher 1912

    Lagynion ampullaceum (Stokes) Pascher (Fig. 5c, d)

    References:Kristiansen 2002. p. 239, pl. 62N; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1985. 3:53.

    Basionym:Chrysopyxis ampullacea Stokes

    Synonym:Derepyxis ampullacea (Stokes) Lemmermann

    Occurrence site: Seogangdaegyo, Hangang River (WT 30°C, EC 376 μs cm-1)

    Description: This species is solitary and epiphytic on the filamentous or other algal body or diatoms. Cellular cover is lorica that is globular flask-shaped with rounded base, and with extending narrow and long cylindrical neck at the opening anterior. Cells are 5-6 μm in diameter, 10-12 μm in length with the neck.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is epiphytic on the filamentous green algae, diatoms or non-filamentous diatoms (e.g. Asterionella). It is cosmopolitan in Europe (Kristiansen 2002), Japan (Hirose and Yamagishi 1977; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1985), Poland (Burchardt and Marshall 2003), North America (Michigan Lake) (Prescott 1962).

    Specimen: DAEJINHG-20150709-1; NIBRCL0000000062 (NIBR 2015).

    Remark: This species was first described as Chrysopyxis ampullacea by Stokes (1886). Lemmermann (unknown) reported Derepyxis ampullacea as a new species, based on C. ampullacea Stokes. The genus Derepyxis and Chrysopyxis are like several other genera of Stylococcaceae, because they have similar flagellar apparatus systems. Pascher (1912) merged C. ampullacea into Lagynion ampullaceum as a synonym. Recently, these taxa are regarded as a synonym by Guiry and Guiry (2017).

    Lagynion macrotrachelum (Stokes) Pascher (Fig. 5e, f)

    References:Kristiansen 2002. p. 239, pl. 62O; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1987. 6: 43.

    Basionym: Chrysopyxis macrotrachela Stokes.

    Occurrence site: Geomdan waterway (WT 24.6℃, pH 9.5, EC 1,150 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary and epiphytic on the filamentous green algae and diatoms or non-filamentous diatoms (central diatoms). Cell is covered with lorica, that is globular flask-shaped with slightly depressed ellipsoid and a flattened base, and with an extending long cylindrical narrow neck at the opening and slightly widening anterior. Lorica are 10-12 μm in length with the neck, 5-8 μm in a diameter.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is epiphytic on the filamentous green algae (Oedogonium) in a pool (Kristiansen 2002), Japan (Hokkaido) (Hirose and Yamagishi 1977; Yamagishi and Akiyama 1987) and North America (Michigan Lake) (Prescott 1962).

    Specimen: KTSN 12000013228 (Nakdonggang NIBR 2016); DAEJINGD-20160924-1.

    Remark: This species was first described Chrysopyxis macrotrachela as a new species by Stokes (1886). Pascher (1912) merged C. macrotrachela into L. macrotrachelum as a synonym. Recently, these taxa are regarded to as a synonym by Guiry and Guiry (2017). This species is like several taxa such as L. scherfellii, L. reductum and L. infundibulliforme and it is difficult to identify and classify them. It is like the upper depressed state, the angle of side face and flattened or not at the base of the lorica. Therefore, it is difficult to identify them accurately from raw materials by light microscopy. In this study, it was identified and classified as L. macrotrachelum because there was slightly depressed globular flask shaped on the upper of lorica, rounded side face and flattened base against to substrate.

    Class Bicosoecophyceae

    Order Bicosoecales

    Family Bicosoecaceae

    Genus Bicosoeca H.J. Clark 1866

    Bicosoeca planctonica Kisselev (Fig. 5g, h)

    References:Huber-Pestalozzi 1941. p. 283, fig. 349.

    Occurrence site: Estuary of Mangyeong River (WT 30℃, EC 376 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary and planktonic algae. Cell is covered with lorica that is conical or bell-shaped with yellowish or brownish-yellow color. The cells are narrowed to go to the base and pointed at the end, and it is widely open at the anterior. It is composed of 10-15 parallel superimposed rings. Loricae are 10-15 μm in length and 10-15 μm in width.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is planktonic algae in ponds. Russia (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941).

    Specimen: DAEJINMG-20150507; NIBR (2015).

    Remark: This species is like Pseudokephyrion conicum in morphology and number of flagella. Also, the color of lorica is the same as the typical crysomonade. However, since the color may vary depending on surrounding environment, relationship between the two species is irrelevant. The difference between these two species is in the number of flagella. The genus Bicosoeca has one flagella, while the genus Pseudokephyrion two flagella (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941). If it could not investigate the number of flagella in raw material, it is difficult to identify and classify two species. In this study, however, flagella were not found in some cells that were identified as this species.

    Class Choanoflagellatea

    Order Craspedida

    Family Salpingoecaceae

    Genus Salpingeoca J.H. Clark 1868

    Salpingoeca frequentissima (Zacharias) Lemmermann (Fig. 5i, j)

    References:Huber-Pestalozzi 1941. p. 294, fig. 375.

    Bisinonym: Diplosiga frequentissima Zacharias.

    Synonym: Diplosigopsis frequentissima (Zacharias) Lemmermann.

    Occurrence site: Seogangdaegyo, Han River (WT 30°C, EC 376 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary and epiphyton. Cell is covered with lorica, which is soft, hyaline, short vaseshaped with elongated at the base into hallow, and attached on other algae. Anterior of lorica is widely opened collar with flagella, which is 2-3 times as long as the body. Loricae are 10-11 μm, 3-5 μm in diameter and stalks are 2.5-3 μm.

    Distribution and Ecology: This species is epiphyton on filamentous algae or other algae, which is Asterionella, Tabellaria, Coelosphaerium, Dictyosphaerium etc., and aquatic plants in standing waters.

    Specimen: DAEJINHG-20150709-1; NIBR (2015).

    Remark: This genus has been first described Salpingoeca gracilis as the new species by Clark (1868). It is classified as epiplankton forms of colorless flagellates (Class Farblose Flagellaten), Order Protomastiginae and family Craspedomonadaceae by Huber-Pestalozzi (1941). Guiry (2016) wanted to present another genus because it forms attendant relations with Codosiga in the interrelationship of the sponges with the Monadina. This genus has called Salpingoeca. It is an individual of Codosiga which does not have a stalk, but is attached in a calyx, from which it projects, or into which it constricts, at will (Guiry and Guiry 2017: in nomenclatural notes). However, they were classified as protozoans: Class Choanoflagellatea, Order Craspedida, and Family Salpingoecaceae (Guiry and Guiry 2017). In this study, this species was identified based on Huber-Pestalozzi (1941) and was classified according to Guiry and Guiry (2017).

    Salpingeoca rosetta Dayel et al. (Fig. 5k, l)

    References:Dayel et al. 2011. p. 73-82, fig. 1.

    Occurrence site: Geomdan waterway (WT 24.6℃, pH 9.5. EC 1,150 μs cm-1).

    Description: This species is solitary or colony and epiphyton on several algae. Cells are lorica, which is soft, hyaline, short vase-shaped with elongated at the base into hallow, and attached on other algae by a short stipe. Anterior of lorica is opened collar with flagella, which is 2-3 times as long as the body. Loricae are 7-10 μm in length, 5-6 μm in diameter and stalks are 2.5-3 μm.

    Specimen: KTSN 120000207894 (Nakdonggang NIBR 2016); DAEJINGD-20150603-1.

    Remark: This species was described as a new species by Dayel et al. (2011). They found that the species is solitary or form rosette-shaped colonies through studies such as cellular life history, cell differentiation and morphogenesis, and phylogenetic analyzes. Based on these data, they also reported differences between other several taxa (Choanoeca perplexa, Codosiga botrytis and Desmarella Kent). The species identified in this study did not form a colony and were living alone.

    Acknowledgement

    This study was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) and Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources (NNIBR) funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201701201 and NNIBR201701201).

    Figure

    KJEB-35-305_F1.gif

    Location of sampling sites of new recorded taxa in South Korea. 1. Seogangdaegyo, Han River (37°32ʹ03ʺ, 126°55ʹ18"), 2. Geomdan waterway (37°35ʹ53ʺ, 126°36ʹ12ʺ), 3. Gonchon stream (37°ʹ32'25ʺ, 126°36ʹ35ʺ), 4. Chukdong reservoir and fishery (36°06ʹ34ʺ, 126°47ʹ57ʺ), 5. Geomgurimot (36°06ʹ06ʺ, 126°43ʹ02ʺ), 6. Estuary of Mangeong river (35°52ʹ22ʺ, 126°42ʹ45ʺ), 7. Dombaemul (36° 09ʹ14ʺ, 126°48ʹ37ʺ).

    KJEB-35-305_F2.gif

    a, b. Ankistrodesmus bernardii, c, d. Quadrigula korsikovii. e. Didymocystis planctonica. Scale bar is 10 μm.

    KJEB-35-305_F3.gif

    a, b. Spirulina nodosa, c, d. Raphidiopsis curvata, e, f. Geitlerinema claricentrosum. Scale bar is 10 μm.

    KJEB-35-305_F4.gif

    a, b. Phacus mammillatus, c, d. Characiopsis malleolus, e, f. Epipyxis utriculus. Scale bar is 10 μm.

    KJEB-35-305_F5.gif

    a, b. Stokesiella lepteca, c, d. Lagynion ampullaceum, e, f. Lagynion macrotrachelum, g, h. Bicosoeca planctonica, i, j. Salpingoeca frequentissima, k, l. Salpingeoca rosetta. Scale bar is 10 μm.

    Table

    Reference

    1. An S.S. , Chang Y.K. (1990) A Taxonomic study on the genus Scenedesmus in Korea (I). , Korean J. Phycol., Vol.5 ; pp.123-129
    2. Anagnostidis K. (1989) Geitlerinema, a new genus of oscillatorialean cyanophytes. , Plant Syst. Evol., Vol.164 ; pp.33-46
    3. Alvárez Cobelas M. (1984) Catálogo de las algas continentales españolas. II. Craspedophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dinophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Haptophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, Xanthophyceae. , Acta Bot. Malacit., Vol.9 ; pp.27-40
    4. Bicudo C.V. , Bicudo D.C. , Ferragut C. , Lopes M.R. , Pires P.R. (2003) Cryptogams of the “Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga”, Sao Paulo, SP. Algae 17. , Chrysophyceae. Hoehnea, Vol.30 ; pp.127-153
    5. Borzí A. (1895) Studi algologici: saggio di richerche sulla biologia delle alghe., Fasc. II,
    6. Burchardt L. , Marshall H. (2003) The community of epiphytes in mesotrophic lake phytoplankton. , Fragm. Florist. Geobot. Pol., Vol.10 ; pp.267-272
    7. Cano R. , RA udez S. , Hooker E. (2004) The Natural Diet of Apocyclops panamensis at a Shrimp Farm on the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua. , Zool. Stud., Vol.43 ; pp.344-349
    8. Caraus I. (2017) Algae of Romania. A distributional checklist of actual algae. Version 2.4. , Studii si Cercetari Biologie, Vol.7 ; pp.1-1002
    9. Chadefaud M. (1951) L̓evolution morphologique et la systematique des Cyanophycees 70e Cong, de VA.F.A.S,
    10. Chang Y.K. (1986) Additions to the fresh-water algae in Korea (III). , Korean J. Lim., Vol.19 ; pp.89-96
    11. Chang Y.K. (1987) Additions to the fresh-water algae in Korea (IV). , Korean J. Lim., Vol.2 ; pp.93-96
    12. Chang Y.K. , An S.S. (1989) A Taxonomic study of the genus Scenedesmus in Korea. , Korean J. Phycol., Vol.4 ; pp.79-85
    13. Chodat R. (1913) Monographies d’algues en culture pure. Matériaux pour la Flore Cryptogamique Suisse, Vol.VI (2)
    14. Chung J. , Kim H.S. (1994) Fresh-water algae new to Korea (VI). , Korean J. Phycol., Vol.9 ; pp.115-124
    15. Clark H.J. (1868) On the Spongiae Ciliatae as Infusoria Flagellata; or, observations on the structure, animality, and relationship of Leucosolenia botryoides, Bowerbank. , Memoirs of the Boston Natural History Society., Vol.1 ; pp.305-340
    16. Dayel M.J. , Alegado R.A. , Fairclough S.R. , Levin T.C. , Nichols S.A. , McDonald K. , King N. (2011) Cell differentiation and morphogenesis in the colony-forming choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta. , Dev. Biol., Vol.357 ; pp.73-82
    17. Desikachary T.V. (1959) ICAR Monograph on Algae,
    18. Ehrenberg C.G. (1832) Über die Entwickelung und Lebensdauer der Infusionsthiere; nebst ferneren Beiträgen zu einer Vergleichung ihrer organischen Systeme. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie Wissenschaften zu Berlin. , Physikalische Klasse, Vol.1831 ; pp.1-154
    19. Ehrenberg C.G. (1838) Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen: Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur., Verlag von Leopold Voss,
    20. Fott B. (1973) Die Gattungen Dicellula Swir., Didymocystis Korsch. und ihre Beziehungen zur Gattung Scenedesmus Meyen. , Preslia (Prague), Vol.45 ; pp.1-10
    21. Fritsch F.E. (1935) The structure and reproduction of algae., Cambridge University Press, Vol.Vol. I
    22. Fritsch F.E. , Rich F. (1929) Freshwater algae from Griqualand West. , Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr., Vol.18 ; pp.1-123
    23. Geitler L. (1925) Pascher’s Süsswasserflora, Fischer-Verl,
    24. Gomont M. (1892) Monographie des OscillariA(c)es (NostocacA(c)es HomocystA(c)es). DeuxiA(c)me partie. - LyngbyA(c)es. , Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, Série 7, Vol.16 ; pp.91-264
    25. Guiry M.D. , Guiry G.M. Kennedy M.K , Van Guelpen L. (2017) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Accessed 20 August 2017
    26. Gupta R.K. (2012) Algae of India Volume 2. A checklist of Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae. Chrysophyceae and Euglenophyceae, Botanical Survey of India,
    27. Hegewald E. (1978) New subdivision of genus Scenedesmus. , Nova Hedwigia, Vol.30 ; pp.343-376
    28. Hegewald E. (1988) A new interpretation of the genus Didymocystis Kor (Chlorophyta, Chlorococcales). Arch. Hydrobiol. Support. 78. , Algol. Stud., Vol.48 ; pp.309-312
    29. Hegewald E. , Schnepf E. (1979) Zur struktur und taxonomie bestachelter Chlorellales (Micractiniaceae, Golenkiniaceae, Siderocystopsis). , Nova Hedwigia, Vol.39 ; pp.207-383
    30. Hegewald E. , Deason T.R. (1989) Pseudodidymocystis, a new genus of Scenedesmaceae (Chlorophyceae). , Arch. Hydrobiol., Vol.82 ; pp.119-127
    31. Hindak F. (1977) Studies on the Chlorococcal algae. Chlorophyceae. I. Brastilava, Veda. , Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vol.23 ; pp.1-192
    32. Hindak F. (1988) Studies on the Chlorococcal Algae. Chlorophyceae, IV. Veda. , Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Vol.34 ; pp.1-263
    33. Hirose H. , Yamagishi T. (1977) Illustration of the Japanese Freshwater Algae., Uchida Rokakuhe,
    34. Hu H. , Wei Y. (2006) The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology., Science Press,
    35. Huber-Pestalozzi G. Thienenmann A. (1938) Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers. (Allgemeiner Teil, Blaualgen, Bakterien, Pilze.)., Vol.14 ; pp.1-342
    36. Huber-Pestalozzi G. (1941) Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers. Systematik und Biologie. 2. Teil (1): Chrysophyceen, Farblose Flagellaten, Heterokonten, Schweizerbart,
    37. John D.M. , Tsarenko P.M. John D.M. , Whitton B.A. , Brook A.J. (2002) The Freshwater Algal Flora of the Britain Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae., Cambridge University Press, ; pp.327-409
    38. John D.M. , Whitton B.A. , Brook A.J. (2002) The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae., Cambridge Univ. Press,
    39. Kawamura T. (1918) Freshwater biology of Japan., Shokabo, (in Japanese)
    40. Kim H.S. (1996) Desmids Staurastrum and Staurodesmus from Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. , Nova Hedwigia, Vol.62 ; pp.521-541
    41. Kim H.S. (2013) New records of fresh-water green algae (Chlorophytes) from Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.36 ; pp.303-314a
    42. Kim H.S. (2014) Desmids from Korea; 1. Desmidiaceae.1 (Micrasterias). , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.37 ; pp.285-298a
    43. Kim H.S. (2014) Records of desmids (Chlorophyta) newly found in Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.37 ; pp.299-313b
    44. Kim H.S. , Kim Y.J. , Park C.W. , Chung J. (1994) Unreported fresh-water algae in Korea. , J. Plant Biol., Vol.37 ; pp.131-139
    45. Kim Y.J. (2013) Taxonomic review of families Botrycoccaceae and Characiaceae, Order Chlorococcales, and Class Chlorophyceae in Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.36 ; pp.327-338b
    46. Kim Y.J. (2013) Taxonomic and ecological study of the families Hydrpdictyaceae and Coelastraceae, Order Chlorococcales, and Class Chlorophyceae in Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.37 ; pp.421-437c
    47. Kim Y.J. (2014) Floristic survey and five new records of freshwater coccoid green algae (genus Coenochloris, Radiococcus, Schizochlamydella, and Thorakochloris). , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.37 ; pp.351-363c
    48. Kim Y.J. (2014) Flora and newly recorded species of three colonial genera (Euteramorus, Coenocystis, and Gloeocystis) in freshwater chlorococcal green algae from Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.36 ; pp.365-378d
    49. Kim Y.J. (2017) New records of coccoid green algae in Korea. , J. Species ReSearch, Vol.6 ; pp.42-50
    50. Kim J.H. , Boo S.M. , Kim Y.H. (2012) Morphology and plastid psbA phylogeny of Zygnema (Zygnemataceae, Chlorophyta) from Korea: Z. insigne and Z. leiospermum. , Algae, Vol.27 ; pp.225-234
    51. Klebs G.A. (1892) Flagellatenstudien. Theil II. , Z. Wiss. Zool., Vol.55 ; pp.352-445
    52. Komárek J. (1973) Taxonomische Begrenzung der Gattung Didymocystis Kors. (Scenedesmaceae, Chlorococcales). , Preslia, Vol.45 ; pp.311-314
    53. Komárek J. (1979) A"nderungen in der Taxonomie der Chlorokokkalalgen. Archiv fA1/4r Hydrobiologie Suppl. 56. , Algol. Stud., Vol.24 ; pp.239-263
    54. Komárek J. (1983) Contribution to the Chlorococcal Algae of Cuba. , Nova Hedwigia, Vol.37 ; pp.65-180
    55. Komárek J. Büdel B. , Gärtner G. , Krienitz L. , Schagerl M. (2013) SA1/4swasserflora von Mitteleuropa/Freshwater flora of Central Europe., Springer Spektrum Berlin,
    56. Komárek J. , Anagnostidis K. Büdel B. , Krienitz L. (2005) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa 19/2., Elsevier/Spektru,
    57. Komárek J. , Fott B. Huber Pestalozzi G. (1983) Das Phytoplankton des Süßwassers. Systematik und Biologie. Teil 7., Schweiz Verg,
    58. Komárek J. , Kaštovský, J. , Mareš J. , Johansen J.R. (2014) Taxonomic classification of cyanoprokaryotes (cyanobacterial genera) 2014, using a polyphasic approach. , Preslia, Vol.86 ; pp.295-335
    59. Korshikov O.A. (1953) The Freshwater Algae of the Ukrainian SSR. V. Subclass Protococcineae. Vacuolales and Protococcales. Akad Nauk URSR., Kyjv, [Kiev]
    60. Krientiz L. , Bock C. (2012) Present state of the systematics of planktonic coccoid green algae of inland waters. , Hydrobiologia, Vol.698 ; pp.295-326
    61. Kristiansen J. John D.M. , Whitton B.A. , Brook A.J. (2002) Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles., Cambridge University Press, ; pp.214-244
    62. Lemmermann E. Dritter Band (1908) Kryptogamenflora der Mark Brandenburg und angrenzender Gebiete herausgegeben von dem Botanishcen Verein der Provinz Brandenburg., Verlag von Grebrüder Borntraeger,
    63. Marchand L. (1895) Sous-regne des Cryptogames., Société d’État Scientifique,
    64. Pascher A. (1912) Eine farblose rhizopodiale Chrysomonade. , Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges., Vol.30 ; pp.152-158
    65. Pascher A. Rabenhorst L. (1938) Kryptogamen- Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz., Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Vol.11 (5) ; pp.641-832
    66. Philipose MT. (1967) Chlorococcales., Indian Council of Agricultural Research,
    67. Philipose M.T. (1984) Contributions to our knowledge of Indian algae-III. Euglenineae - Part 2. , Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., Vol.93 ; pp.503-552[Plant Science].
    68. Prescott G.W. (1962) Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area., Wm. C. Brown Co.,
    69. Printz H. (1916) Contributiones ad floram asiae interioris pertinentes. I. Die Chlorophyceen des sA1/4dlichen Sibiriens und des Uriankailandes. , Kongelige Norske Videnskabernes Selskab Skrifter, Vol.1915 ; pp.1-59
    70. Rippka R. , Deruelles J. , Waterbury J.B. , Herdman M. , Stanier R.Y. (1979) Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. , J. Gen. Microbiol., Vol.111 ; pp.1-61
    71. Shin H.J. , Song M.A. , Lee O.M. (2013) A study of nine newly reported species of the order Chlorococcales (Chlorophyta) in Hongcheon river, Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.36 ; pp.315-325
    72. Song M.A. , Lee O.M. (2014) A study of newly recorded genera and species of aerial algae in the order Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) from the Hongcheon-river, Korea. , J. Ecol. Environ., Vol.37 ; pp.315-325
    73. Stokes A.C. (1886) Notices of new fresh-water Infusoria. , Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., Vol.23 ; pp.562-568
    74. Strunecký O. , Bohunická M. , Johansen J.R. , Čapková K. , Raabová L. , Dvořák P. , Komárek J. (2017) A revision of the genus Geitlerinema and a description of the genus Anagnostidinema gen. nov. (Oscillatoriophycidae, Cyanobacteria). , Fottea, Olomouc, Vol.17 ; pp.114-126
    75. Wehr J. , Sheath R. (2003) Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification., Academic Press,
    76. Wolowski K. John DM , Whitton BA , Brook AJ (2002) Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles, Cambridge University Press,
    77. Wui IS , Kim BH. (1987) Flora of the Fresh-Water Algae in Chol La Nam Do, Korea (II) Cyanophyceae , Korean J. Phycol, Vol.2 ; pp.193-201
    78. Yamagishi T. , Akiyama M. (1985) Photomicrographs of the Freshwater Algae. 3., Ukida Rokakuho,
    79. Yamagishi T. , Akiyama M. (1987) Photomicrographs of the Freshwater Algae. 6., Ukida Rokakuho,
    80. Yamagishi T. , Akiyama M. (1995) Photomicrographs of the Freshwater Algae. 15., Ukida Rokakuho,
    81. Yamagishi T. , Akiyama M. (1997) Photomicrographs of the Freshwater Algae. 18., Ukida Rokakuho,
    82. Yamagishi T. , Akiyama M. (1998) Photomicrographs of the Freshwater Algae. 20., Ukida Rokakuho,